北京语音音系小组暑期特辑#沪上读书III

作者:王旖旎 (中国人民大学文学院)

林燕慧教授每次讲座的内容都非常的充实,两个小时下来总有一种大脑快停止思考的感觉,但又忍不住把自己感兴趣或者不懂的地方再与老师讨论片刻。林老师的三次讲座内容安排都在phonetically-based phonology的大主题下,不同角度的分析相互补充,并与其他几位老师的内容遥相呼应。

林教授三次讲座的主题分别是:(1Phonetically-Based Phonology(基于语音的音系学);(2Chinese Affixal Phonology(汉语词缀音系学);(3Variation in Standard Mandarin Loanword Adaptation(标准普通话中借词音变的变异)。

老实讲,林老师的第一次讲座我们整个小组都十分期待,因为在6月份的读书会中我们刚读过Phonetically-based Phonology(Hayes et al.2004)。林老师的介绍也是从这本书开始的。(1Phonetically-based Phonology的基本观点是,音系的制约条件来源于说话人对发音和感知的理解,而这一语音知识在音系类型学上也有相当重要的意义,因为一些控制发音和感知的物理或生理条件是所有语言共有的,比如说在世界语言中有长浊塞音的语言一定有短浊塞音,因为从发音难度上来看,长浊塞音比短浊塞音更困难。(2)林老师进一步讲了Steriade2008)提出的P-map理论(P = Perceptibility 感知度),简单来说这一理论作用到OT制约条件上,就表现为要求在特定环境中基于相关对立音的感知相似度从输入项到输出项做出最小的调整,如在听感上[p][m]的差别要大于[p][b],所以P-map的要求投射到OT的制约条件中就是IDENT [+/–nasal]/V__ ](禁止改变鼻音特征)的排序要高于IDENT [+/–voice]/V__ ](禁止改变清浊特征),这样可以解释为什么词尾不能有浊塞音的语言,以清塞音而不是以鼻音替代。(3)第三部分林老师提到了 Flemming2001/2004)对“Articulatory difficulty/markedness(就单个的音而言的发音困难度和标志性)“Perceptual difficulty/markedness(就相互对立的音而言的感知困难度和标志性)的区分。除了前者,音系制约条件也必须考虑后者。采用Lindblom1986)的“The Dispersion Theory of contrast”(对立离散理论), Flemming 进一步将限制语言中对立音位的规则理论化,总结为:最大化对立 音间的差别;最省力发音;最大化对立音数量。(4)第四部分林老师用上述Phonetically-based Phonology的理论方法分析了几个汉语中的例子。如获嘉D变韵中,所有本韵的鼻音韵尾和母音合并成鼻音韵母,在变韵后形成三个对立离散(dispersed)的鼻音韵母, 同时也是保持鼻音韵母变韵前与变韵后对应关系共同作用的结果。(5)最后一部分林老师提到了一些与Phonetically-based Phonology不同的观点和理论,比如从历时角度用代际继承与传播来解释音变和普遍性的音系规则。林老师说这部分的意义在于告诉我们,只有完全熟悉与你不同的声音,你才有更大的把握去反击并完善自己的理论。

第二次讲座的题目是汉语词缀音系学,尽管汉语的形态变化相对匮乏,但是也存在一些复杂有趣的案例能够帮助展示一个更完整的汉语形态音位学,而对这方面的关注还相对较少。(1)第一部分林老师展示了分别用形态学和语音/音系学两种不同的方法分析阳谷的儿化现象。阳谷话的儿化后缀除了有卷舌音[r]之外,还有边音[l],有时[l]还会出现在音节中间位置,形态学的分析方法认为阳谷话卷舌音变存在一个后缀[r]和一个中缀[l],语音/音系学的分析方法则认为[l]是音系插音的结果,阳谷话的儿化后缀只有[r]一个。林老师提出了一种混合方法的分析,即[r][l]都是阳谷话儿化词缀,但[l]出现的位置受到语音/音系因素的制约,[l]的作用是使两个音素成分的转换更平滑,之后对阳谷话数据的分析证明了这一假设的合理性,从数据分析中,林老师归总了驱动中缀产生的因素,包括卷舌动作和谐、韵律制约以及语音层面的对立到表层的实现程度等。(2)第二部分讲了如何分析一些不规则的形态音系学输出,林老师提倡一种共时的理论方法,她认为不规则形式是由一些特殊的规则或制约条件驱动产生的,如北京话中前鼻音儿化韵不带鼻化特征,而后鼻音儿化韵是带有鼻音特征的,张杰(2000)在语音学层面上分析这是因为前鼻音的鼻音成分不如后鼻音强,林老师从对立角度解释这是因为要保持前后鼻音儿化形式的对立。获嘉子变韵的解释与之相似,都是对词根的忠实性制约条件与变韵后形式要保有词根对立的矛盾博弈的结果。(3)最后一部分林老师在汉语变韵的基础上总结了特征词缀的类型,特征词缀包括音素特征、声调特征、韵律特征等,如goose复数变为geese,就可以看做是增加了[-back]词缀。汉语中的特征词缀多发生于变韵中,主要形式包括音素特征词缀、词缀+浮游特征、韵素(mora)特征词缀、韵素+音素特征词缀等,这些特征词缀可能在表层实现为一个音素,其特征也可能被部分实现或不实现,这受到音素限制和韵律规则的制约。通过对汉语各方言变韵中特征词缀的分析,林老师概括出来一系列汉语特征词缀的特征(如在同一方言中特征词缀可多样地被实现为特征或音素等),并与非汉语语言的特征词缀特点进行了比较。

第三次讲座的主题与Kenstowicz教授的题目相关度很高,林老师将主要的关注点聚焦在普通话借词元音和鼻音的变异上,分析了从英语借入的借词在普通话中的适应模式,探求在多大程度上这些适应模式中的音变与语音/音系相关(这一课题之前已经有学者做过一些研究,比如说Hsieh, Kenstowicz & Mou(2009)已经分析过英语中元音的前后影响着借词借入普通话后对鼻音韵尾的选择)。与语音/音系相关的音变有很多类型,比如特征音变,在借词中,一些特征会比另一些特征更忠实地被保留,像是在借词中辅音的发音方法较发音位置更好地被保留了下来;环境音变,像是在普通话借词中,紧跟着后低元音的[n]会变成[Ó];基于输入差别的音变;完全相同条件下的无规则变体,如Blair在普通话中既可以是布莱尔也可以说布雷尔。林老师以标准普通话中借词元音的变异标准普通话中借词鼻音是否复化(如Tíffany是蒂芙尼还是蒂凡尼)两个案例探究了普通话借词的音变模式和变异容忍度。以标准普通话中借词元音的变异为例,通过对随机收集的小规模样本的分析,可以发现一些音变的系统性分布规律:如英语元音的前后比元音的高低和圆展更忠实的被保留在普通话借词里;在高低上音变是可能出现的,但容忍度很小,比如只允许高中、中低之间变化,不允许高低音变的发生;中元音在前后关系上表现得很模糊等。紧接着,林老师将这些已获得的规律放入更大的样本中去检验其是否普遍且成系统,通过对《牛津高级英英英汉双解辞典》中4200个人名地名的中英对照分析,发现其音变模式与以上规律完全一致,除此之外,不同元音还表现出不同的音变级别,如整体来看中元音最多变,低元音次之,最稳定的是高元音,松紧元音之间也有差别,这些与第二节所提到的感知上的对立和显著度有关。第三部分林老师引了相关感知的实验数据,证明了以上模式在感知上也是成立的。最后林老师提到已将普通话借词元音适应性音变模式的变异在 Lin2015)用优选论模型表示出来。

林老师三次讲座其实是从理论到多角度案例的逐次深入,除了前沿的理论和丰富的语料,其研究问题的严谨论证逻辑也给我们以启迪。对我个人而言印象最深的是第三次,因为在展示两个案例的过程中,林老师其实也展现给我们一套从数据分析到实验论证再到理论支持的完整的、操作性极强的音系学研究模板,在课下我有尝试用相似的方法去探讨网络词的音变模式,神奇的是得出的结论与林老师提到过的Miao ,Ruiqin2005)得出的关于普通话借词模式的相关结论是相互印证的,这引发了我进一步的思考——网络语音表达个性的的需求,借词有在感知上接近源语言的需要,二者一个求异一个求同,但其中的音变模式竟然极其相似,这到底是为什么?虽然现在我还没有一个明确的答案,但恐怕还是要从音系中去寻找。

参考文献:

Lecture 1

Flemming, Edward. 2001. Auditory Representations in Phonology. New York: Garland Press. Flemming, Edward. 2004. Contrast and perceptual distinctiveness. In Phonetically-Based Phonology, eds. Bruce Hayes, Robert Kirchner, & Donca Steriade, 232-275. Cambridge University Press.  Hayes, Bruce., Kirchner, Robert. & Steriade, Donca. 2004. Phonetically-Based Phonology. Cambridge University Press. 

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 1993. Degenerate affixes and templatic constraints: Rime change in Chinese. Language 69:649-682.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2001. Toward a unified account of three classes of Huojia affixed words. In Chinese Phonology in Generative Grammar, ed. De Bao Xu, 223-240. San Diego: Academic Press.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2005. Contrast maximization and nasalized vowels in Huajia Chinese. Paper presented at the Linguistic Society of America Annual Meeting. Oakland, California.   

Lin,  Yen-Hwei.  2008.  Variable  vowel  adaptation  in  Standard  Mandarin loanwords.  Special  Issue  on  Loanwords,  Journal  of  East  Asian  Linguistics 17.4: 363-380.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2010 (2012). “Unexpected morphophonological outputs,” NACCL-22 & IACL-18: Proceedings of the 22nd North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics and the 18th International Conference on Chinese Linguistics, Vol. 1, edited by Lauren Eby Clemens and Chi-Ming Louis Liu, 363-382. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. Distributed by NACCL Proceedings Online, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

[http://naccl.osu.edu/proceedings/naccl-22_iacl-18] [Publication appeared in 2012]. 

Steriade, Donca. 2008. The phonology of perceptibility effects: the p-map and its consequences for constraint organization. In The Nature of the Word : Studies in Honor of Paul Kiparsky, eds. Sharon Inkelas & Kristin Hanson, 151-179. MIT Press. 

Lindblom, Björn. 1986. Phonetic universals in vowel systems. In Experimental Phonology, eds. John J. Ohala and Jeri Jaeger, 13-44. Orlando: Academic Press.

Lecture 2

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 1989. Autosegmental treatment of segmental processes in Chinese phonology. The University of Texas at Austin Ph D dissertation. 

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 1990. The retroflex as a complex segment. ESCOL ’89, Proceedings of the Sixth Eastern States Conference on Linguistics, 182-193. Columbus: Department of Linguistics, Ohio State University.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2004. Chinese affixal phonology: some analytical and theoretical Issues. Special Issue on Phonetics and Phonology, Language and Linguistics 5.4: 1019-1046.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2005. Contrast and merger in morphophonology. Keynote speech given at IACL-13: 13th Annual Meeting of International Association on Chinese Linguistics, Leiden University, The Netherlands.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2005. Contrast preservation and neutralization: Nasal Vowels in Chinese diminutive words. Paper presented at MCWOP-11: Mid-Continental Workshop on Phonology 11. Ann Arbor: the University of Michigan.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2007a. Ungrammatical affixed words in the Huojia dialect. Taiwan Journal of Linguistics 5:1-18.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2007b. The Sounds of Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2008a. Parsing roots and affixes in Chinese affixal phonology: The conflicts of faithfulness and contrast preservation. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Linguistic Society of America, Chicago.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2008b. A systemic approach to morphophonological alternations: Diminutive rime change in Huojia and Jiyuan. Paper presented at Is CLL-11: 11th International Symposium of Chinese Languages and Linguistics. National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2008c. The morphophonology of Pingding er infixation: an OT analysis. Interfaces in Chinese Phonology, Language and Linguistics Monograph Series, edited by Yuchau E. Hsiao, Hui-Chuan Hsu & Lian-Hee Wee, 161-182. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2009. Contrast preservation in morphophonology: Diminutive rime change in Hong’an Chinese. ICEAL-2: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on East Asian Linguistics. Simon Fraser University Working Papers in Linguistics, volume 2. [https://www.sfu.ca/gradlings/working-papers/wp_2.html]

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2017. Realizations of featural affixes in rime change. Keynote speech at ICCPG-4: the 4th International Conference on Chinese Prosodic Grammar, Henan University, China (June 3-4).

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2018. Yanggu diminutive er affixation revisited. Paper preseted at NACCL-30: the 30th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, Ohio State University.

Zhang, Jie. 2000. Non-contrastive features and categorical patterning in Chinese diminutive suffixation — Max[F] or Ident[F]. Phonology 17:427-478.

Lecture 3

Hsieh, Feng-fan, Kenstowicz, Michael, & Mou, Xiaomin 2009. Mandarin adaptations of coda nasals in English loanwords. In Loan phonology, edited by Andrea Calabrese and W. Leo Wetzels, 131-154. Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2008. Patterned vowel variation in Mandarin loanword adaptation: evidence from a dictionary corpus. NACCL-20: Proceedings of the 20th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics, edited by Marjorie K.M. Chan and Hana Kang, 175-184. Columbus, Ohio: East Asian Studies Center, The Ohio State University. 

Lin, Yen-Hwei & Huang, Ho-Hsin. 2013. Nasal adaptations in Standard Mandarin loanwords. Invited talk at Face-to-Face Phonology Workshop of the 4th Theoretical Phonology Conference. National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan.   

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2015a. Input underspecification and multiple outputs selection: variation in loanword adaptation. Capturing Phonological Shades within and across Languages: Inspirations from the Theoretical Phonology Conferences, edited by Yuchao Hsiao & Lian Hee Wee, 320-341. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.   

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2015b. Adapting English nasals into Standard Mandarin: nasal gemination and post-nasal vowel epenthesis. Invited talk at International Conference in Celebration of the 30th Anniversary of the Graduate Institute of Linguistics. National Tsinghua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.   

Lin, Yen-Hwei. 2017. Metrical effects in Chinese phonology. Invited talk at Chinese University of Hong Kong and Beijing Language and Culture University Joint Research Center for Chinese Linguistics and Applied Linguistics, Chinese University of Hong Kong.

Miao, Ruiqin. 2005. Loanword Adaptation in Mandarin Chinese: Perceptual, Phonological and Sociolinguistic Factors. Stony Brook University Ph D dissertation.

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